Saturday, August 31, 2019

Theory of Gravity Essay

Of all the current nuclear fusion reactor experiments JET and ITER are the largest. JET, Joint European Torus, based in Culham Science Centre in the UK, is the centre of Europe’s fusion research. JET is currently the world’s largest tokomak capable of delivering up to 30 MW of power, it is used by more than 20 European Countries and also used by international scientists. It is used to test the conditions that will be in use by commercial fusion power plants. JET began in 1978, in operation since 1983 and in November of 1991 became the first experiment to produce controlled nuclear fusion power. It has been a stepping stone for ITER, producing parameters that have been vital in its production. In 1997 a record of 16 MW of energy were produced by JET using the mixed deuterium-tritium fuel with an input of 24 MW; a 65% ratio. ITER, originally standing for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor but dropped due to negative connotations of thermonuclear especially combined with the word experimental. ITER began in 1985, but it was only until 2005 that the south of France was decided on as a location for the reactor. ITER is supported by many countries worldwide including the USA, the EU, the Russian Federation, India, China, Korea and Japan. In November 2006, and agreement was signed which formed the international ITER organisation who owns the device and all aspects of the project. ITER was formulated because it was agreed that a larger and more powerful reactor was needed to emulate conditions in a commercial reactor and demonstrate its feasibility. ITER is built from the collective research made by all the many fusion experiments worldwide; a collaborative effort to provide cheap, clean fuel for many future generations. The first plasma is predicted to be produced by 2016. Nuclear Fusion is entirely feasible as a future energy source though it will be a long time before they will overtake traditional natural resources in terms of percentage of the Earth’s energy provided. Estimated put it around 2050 until fusion power plants are in full commercial use. It is proven that fusion is the most efficient energy source we have to date; 4 times more than that of nuclear fission. It is inherently safe, and there is no hazardous waste except some radioactive materials from free neutrons, though in future designs this could be eradicated. Research is currently going well; all that remains is for bigger more powerful models and with ITER on the horizon it will not be long before a self sustaining fusion reaction with a positive output is achieved. This means well into the future 100% waste free fusion plants could provide nearly all of the world’s electricity, resulting in a clean safe environment with a massively reduced threat of global warming. Bibliography C. R. Nave, 2006, HyperPhysics, viewed 13 September 2008 David Sang, 1995, Nuclear and Particle Physic, 2nd Ed. Thomas Nelson and Sons ltd.

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